About Oncologist Speciality

An oncologist (cancer specialist) is a healthcare professional who deal deals with patients suffering from cancer. One of the key oncologist job description criteria is that an oncologist must supervise an oncology medical unit and ensure that the patients that are admitted get the best possible medical care. One important aspect of an oncologist's job is that he must work with the Head of Department of general medicine so as to plan and ensure the best possible options for treatment of cases. Oncologists first diagnose cancer using biopsy, endoscopy, X-ray, CT scanning, MRI scanning, PET scanning, ultrasound or other radiological methods. Nuclear medicine, as well as blood tests and tumour markers, can also be used for diagnosis. Once diagnosed, oncologists discuss the disease, including stage, with patients. Staging, in turn, dictates the type of cancer treatment.
An oncologist (cancer specialist) must have excellent inter and intra-personal communication skills so that he can manage his team of health care providers, while also managing his patients and handling their doubts in a professional manner.

Oncologist
An oncologist is a trained medical professional who diagnoses and treats cancers related to different parts of the body in men, women and children. Bladder cancer, Lung cancer, Brain cancer, Melanoma, Breast cancer, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Cervical cancer, Ovarian cancer, Colorectal cancer, Pancreatic cancer, Oesophageal cancer, Prostate cancer, Kidney cancer, Skin cancer, Leukaemia, Thyroid cancer, Liver cancer, Uterine cancer are some of the cancers that an oncologist provides treatment for. 

In order to become a certified oncologist, one must complete graduation from a medical college before entering into training as a specialist and then subspecialist. There are several oncology specialties and subspecialties including gynaecological oncology, medical oncology, medical oncology and haematology, paediatric oncology and haematology, radiation oncology and surgical oncology. Oncologists usually practice in hospitals and medical centres, university hospitals, and research organizations.    

A list of cancers that an oncologist treats are as follows:

Anal Cancer

Anal cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that starts in the anus - the opening at the end of the rectum. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of anal cancer.

Symptoms of anal cancer
Symptoms include bleeding from the anus or rectum, pain in the area of the anus, a mass or growth in the anal canal and anal itching. 

Treatment of anal cancer
An oncologist usually treats anal cancer with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. If these two forms of cancer treatments fail, he may suggest surgery to remove early-stage anal cancers or surgery for late-stage anal cancers or anal cancers. 

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the cells of the breasts. Ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of breast cancer.

Symptoms of Breast cancer
Symptoms include breast lump, change in the size, shape or appearance of a breast, changes to the skin over the breast, inverted nipples, pigmented area of skin surrounding the nipple, redness of the skin over your breast. 

Treatment of Breast cancer
Most women undergo surgery for breast cancer and also receive chemotherapy, hormone therapy or radiation post surgery. An oncologist may suggest different types of surgery to treat breast cancer including removing the breast cancer (lumpectomy), removing the entire breast (mastectomy), removing a limited number of lymph nodes (sentinel node biopsy), removing several lymph nodes (axillary lymph node dissection) or removing both breasts.

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer, also called carcinoma of the prostate is a form of cancer that develops in a man's prostate - a small walnut-shaped gland that produces seminal fluid. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of prostate cancer.

Symptoms of Prostate cancer
Symptoms include trouble urinating, decreased force in the stream of urine, blood in the semen, discomfort in the pelvic area, bone pain and erectile dysfunction.

Treatment of Prostate cancer
Treatment options for prostate cancer include Radiation therapy, Hormone therapy or surgery. An oncologist may suggest removing the prostate gland and some surrounding tissue and a few lymph nodes in order to treat prostate cancer. Surgical options include robot-assisted surgery, retropubic surgery, perineal surgery, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy or cryosurgery. Alongside these, chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy may be used.   
 
Colorectal cancer

Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower part of your digestive system. Rectal cancer is cancer of the last several inches of the colon. Together they are called colorectal cancer. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of colorectal cancer.

Symptoms of colorectal cancer
Symptoms include a change in bowel habits, including diarrhoea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool, rectal bleeding, regular abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain, a feeling that your bowel doesn't empty completely, fatigue, unexplained weight loss. 

Treatment of colorectal cancer
Fir initial stages of colorectal cancer, an oncologist may suggest surgical procedures such as removing polyps during colonoscopy, endoscopic mucosal resection or minimally invasive surgery. For invasive colorectal cancer, an oncologist may suggest partial colectomy, colostomy or lymph node removal. For advanced stages of colorectal cancer, an oncologist may suggest an operation to relieve a blockage of your colon or other conditions. Alongside these, chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy may be used. 

Lung cancer

Lung cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the lungs and most often occurs in people who smoke. The risk of this cancer increases with an increase in the number of cigarettes smoked. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of lung cancer.

Symptoms of Lung cancer
Symptoms include cough that doesn't go away, chronic cough, coughing up blood, shortness of breath, chest pain, wheezing, hoarseness, unexplained weight loss, bone pain or headache.

Treatment of Lung cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgical procedures for the treatment of lung cancer such as wedge resection to remove a small section of lung that contains the tumour, segmental resection to remove a larger portion of lung, lobectomy to remove the entire lobe of one lung or pneumonectomy to remove an entire lung. Alongside these, chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy may be used. 

Endometrial (Uterine) cancer

Endometrial cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the lining of the womb (uterus). An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of endometrial cancer.

Symptoms of Endometrial cancer
Symptoms include vaginal bleeding after menopause, bleeding between periods, an abnormal, watery or blood-tinged discharge from your vagina and pelvic pain.

Treatment of Endometrial cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgery to remove the uterus which is widely recommended for most women with endometrial cancer. Most women with endometrial cancer undergo a procedure to remove the uterus (hysterectomy) as well as to remove the fallopian tubes and ovaries (salpingo-oophorectomy). Alongside these, chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy may be used. 

Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the lowermost part of the uterus that connects to the vagina- Cervix. A sexually transmitted infection known as human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be behind most cases of cervical cancer. ). An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of cervical cancer.

Symptoms of Cervical cancer
Symptoms include vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause, bloody and smelly vaginal discharge that may be heavy, pelvic pain or pain during intercourse.

Treatment of Cervical cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgery to remove the cervix and uterus (simple hysterectomy) or the cervix, uterus and part of the vagina and lymph nodes (radical hysterectomy) for the treatment of cervical cancer. Additionally, chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy may be used. 

Skin cancer

Skin cancer is a form of cancer which refers to an abnormal growth of skin cells developed generally due to excessive exposure of skin to the sun.  An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of skin cancer.

Symptoms of Skin cancer
Symptoms include a change in size, colour, shape, or texture of a mole or other skin growth or an inflamed skin wound that won't heal.  

Treatment of Skin cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgery to treat sin cancer such as excisional biopsy, cryosurgery, curettage and electrocautery, margin controlled excision (Mohs micrographic surgery) along with skin grafting and skin flap repair. Additionally, chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy may be used. 

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the cells of the thyroid - a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck, just below the Adam's apple. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of thyroid cancer.

Symptoms of Thyroid cancer
Symptoms include a lump that can be felt through the skin on your neck, changes to your voice, including increasing hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, pain in your neck and throat, swollen lymph nodes in your neck.

Treatment of Thyroid cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgery to treat thyroid cancer such as removing all or most of the thyroid (thyroidectomy), removing lymph nodes in the neck, removing a portion of the thyroid (thyroid lobectomy). Additionally, chemotherapy drugs, hormone therapy and radiation therapy may be used. 

Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the stomach - the muscular sac located in the upper middle of your abdomen, just below your ribs. It is also known as gastric cancer.  An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of stomach cancer.

Symptoms of Stomach cancer
Symptoms include fatigue, feeling bloated after eating, feeling full after eating small amounts of food, severe heartburn, unrelenting indigestion, persistent nausea, stomach pain, persistent vomiting and unconditional weight loss. 

Treatment of Stomach cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgery to treat stomach cancer such as removing early-stage tumours from the stomach lining, removing a portion of the stomach (subtotal gastrectomy), removing the entire stomach (total gastrectomy), removing lymph nodes to look for cancer and removing part of the stomach. Additionally, chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy may be used. 

Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the bladder - a balloon-shaped organ in your pelvic area that stores urine. Though bladder cancer can affect anyone of any age, it is predominantly common in older adults. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of bladder cancer.

Symptoms of Bladder cancer
Symptoms include blood in urine (hematuria), frequent urination, painful urination, back pain and pelvic pain.

Treatment of Bladder cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgery to treat bladder cancer such as transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT), segmental cystectomy, sometimes called partial cystectomy, radical cystectomy, surgery to create a new way for urine to leave your body along with immunotherapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. 

Brain cancer

Brain cancer is a form of cancer in which there is a formation of abnormal cells in or close to your brain. Brain cancer can be benign or malignant. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of brain cancer.

Symptoms of Brain cancer
Symptoms include onset or change in pattern of headaches, frequent headaches, nausea or vomiting, blurred vision, double vision or loss of peripheral vision, loss of sensation or movement in an arm or a leg, difficulty with balance, speech difficulties, confusion in everyday matters, behavioural changes, seizures or hearing problems. 

Treatment of Brain cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgery if the brain tumour is located in a place that makes it accessible for an operation. Additionally, targeted drug therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery may be used for the treatment of brain cancer.   

Oesophageal cancer

Oesophageal cancer is a form of cancer which develops in a hollow tube that runs from your throat to your stomach called oesophagus. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of oesophageal cancer.

Symptoms of Oesophageal cancer
Symptoms include difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), unexpected weight loss, chest pain, pressure or burning, worsening indigestion or heartburn, coughing or hoarseness.

Treatment of Oesophageal cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgery to remove a portion of the oesophagus (esophagectomy) and surgery to remove part of your oesophagus and the upper portion of your stomach (esophagogastrectomy). Additionally, chemotherapy, radiation therapy may be used for the treatment of oesophageal cancer.   

Eye cancer

Eye cancer is a form of cancer in which benign or malignant tumours develop in various parts of the eye. Cancer can also sometimes develop in the tissues surrounding your eyeball or spread to the eye from other parts of the body. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of eye cancer.

Symptoms of Eye cancer
Symptoms include shadows, flashes of light, or wiggly lines in your vision, blurred vision, a dark patch in your eye that's getting bigger, partial or total loss of vision, bulging of one eye, a lump on your eyelid, pain in or around your eye.

Treatment of Eye cancer
The main treatments for eye melanoma include brachytherapy, external radiation therapy, surgery to remove the tumour or part of the eye or removal of the eye (enucleation). Additionally, an oncologist may also suggest chemotherapy, but this is rarely used. 

Hodgkin's lymphoma

Hodgkin's lymphoma is a form of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is part of your immune system. Abnormal cancer cells may grow and spread beyond the lymphatic system. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Symptoms of Hodgkin's lymphoma
Symptoms include swelling of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin, fatigue, fever and chills, night sweats, unexplained weight loss, loss of appetite, itching and pain in your lymph nodes after drinking alcohol.

Treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma
An oncologist may suggest stem cell transplant procedure to replace diseased bone marrow with healthy stem cells that will help grow new bone marrow. Additionally, chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy may be used. 

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a form of cancer that develops in your lymphatic system and may slowly spread throughout your body. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is more common than Hodgkin's lymphoma. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Symptoms of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Symptoms include swollen lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin, abdominal pain or swelling, chest pain, coughing or trouble breathing, fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss. 

Treatment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
An oncologist may suggest chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant procedure, biological therapy drugs to enhance your immune system's ability to fight cancer and radioimmunotherapy drugs that deliver radiation directly to cancer cells for the treatment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. 
 
Kidney cancer

Kidney cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the kidneys. Two most common forms of kidney cancers are renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, also called urothelial cell carcinoma). An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of kidney cancer.

Symptoms of Kidney cancer
Symptoms include blood in your urine, which may appear pink, red or cola coloured, back pain just below the ribs that doesn't go away, weight loss, fatigue and intermittent fever. 

Treatment of Kidney cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgical procedures such as radical nephrectomy, nephron-sparing surgery for the treatment of kidney cancer in early stages. Treatments for advanced and recurrent kidney cancer include Surgery to remove as much of the kidney tumour as possible, biological therapy (immunotherapy), targeted therapy or radiation therapy.

Liver cancer

Liver cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the cells of the liver. Liver cancer is of various types including hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatoblastoma. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of liver cancer.

Symptoms of Liver cancer
Symptoms include unexpected weight loss, loss of appetite, upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, general weakness and fatigue, abdominal swelling, jaundice, white, chalky stools.

Treatment of Liver cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgery to remove the tumour or liver transplant surgery. Other treatment options for liver cancer include heating cancer cells, freezing cancer cells, injecting alcohol into the tumour, injecting chemotherapy drugs into the liver or placing beads filled with radiation in the liver.

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the ovaries. This cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. A gynaecologic oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of ovarian cancer. 

Symptoms of Ovarian cancer
Symptoms include abdominal bloating or swelling, quickly feeling full when eating, weight loss, discomfort in the pelvis area, changes in bowel habits, such as constipation, a frequent need to urinate.

Treatment of Ovarian cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgery to remove ovaries, the fallopian tubes, uterus as well as nearby lymph nodes where ovarian cancer often spreads. Additionally, chemotherapy drugs may be used to kill any remaining cancer cells.

Vaginal cancer
Vaginal cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the vagina. This cancer most commonly occurs in the cells that line the surface of your vagina. An oncologist is a specialist with expertise in the management of vaginal cancer.

Symptoms of Vaginal cancer
Symptoms include unusual vaginal bleeding after intercourse or menopause, watery vaginal discharge, a lump or mass in your vagina, painful urination, frequent urination, constipation or pelvic pain. 
Treatment of Vaginal cancer
An oncologist may suggest surgical procedures such as removal of small tumours or lesions, removal of the vagina (vaginectomy), removal of the majority of the pelvic organs (pelvic exenteration). In addition, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be used to kill remaining cancer cells. 

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