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What Is Malignant Hypertension: Possible causes, risk factors, treatment

  • Posted on- Oct 19, 2016
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High blood pressure or more commonly known as hypertension is an incredibly common condition that is known to affect many across the globe. Hypertension can easily be diagnosed simply by checking if your BP is above 120 systolic or 80 diastolic. Hypertension is often easily managed, as long as you make an effort to follow the advice from your general physician. Although not as common as hypertension, some individuals with high blood pressure may suddenly experience a sudden increase in BP that is recorded above 180 systolic or 120 diastolic. This sudden increase in BP is known as malignant hypertension. This particular condition may also be referred to as arteriolar nephrosclerosis. If an individual suffers from the condition, it's advised that they seek immediate medical attention. If emergency treatment is not received, the individual runs the risk of developing much more serious health problems, as a result, such as kidney failure, heart attack or even brain damage.

What are possible causes of malignant hypertension?

Throughout many individuals, high blood pressure is known to be one of the primary causes. If these individuals also rely on some form of BP medication, missing a dose can also cause the condition to occur. Malignant hypertension is mostly discovered in patients who possess some form of history of high blood pressure. According to the official National Institutes of Health, approximately one percent of individuals who suffer from high blood pressure will eventually begin to develop malignant hypertension. Furthermore, there are also certain medical conditions that are also responsible for malignant hypertension. Some health conditions can significantly increase an individual's chances of developing malignant hypertension such as:

  • Forgetting or not taking medication for treating high blood pressure
  • Narrowing of the main blood vessel from the heart, aorta, or aortic dissection (a form of bleeding from the wall of the aorta)
  • Narrowing of the arteries found in the kidneys (known as renal stenosis)
  • A result of a spinal cord injury causing over-activity in parts of a patient's nervous system
  • Autoimmune diseases (antibodies produced in a patient's body to fight against its own tissues)
  • Preeclampsia and pregnancy
  • Drug use such as anti-depressants, oral contraceptives, amphetamines and even cocaine
  • Kidney failure or disorders

Who is at risk for developing malignant hypertension?

Approximately 1% of individuals who have some form of history related to high blood pressure will develop this life-threatening condition. Studies have shown that you may be at greater risk of developing this disease if you are male or African-American origin. Unlike high blood pressure, the serious condition that is malignant hypertension is capable of producing very noticeable symptoms, some of which include:

Malignant hypertension can also lead to another condition which is referred to as hypertensive encephalopathy. Symptoms of this condition can include:
  • Seizures
  • Lack of energy
  • Increased level of confusion
  • Blurred vision
  • Headaches

How is the malignant hypertension condition treated?

Malignant hypertension is a serious medical emergency that requires sufficient levels of treatment in a hospital, which usually involves some form of intensive care unit. Individuals diagnosed with the condition will receive advice from a doctor who will be able to consider their symptoms and health upon deciding what form of medical treatment is the best solution for their personal case. The result of the treatment should be to carefully and steadily lower the patient's BP. BP medication is received through an IV which is one of the quickest methods in order to treat extremely high levels of BP. Once the patient's BP returns to an acceptable and safe level, the medications received intravenously will often be switched to a form of oral medication. If the patient develops kidney failure throughout their condition, they may need to receive kidney dialysis.

How can malignant hypertension be prevented?

Thankfully, some forms of malignant hypertension can easily be prevented. If you are known to have a high blood pressure, it's essential that you receive regular BP checks with your doctor to make sure it's safe and not increasing. If you have high blood pressure, you will no doubt be provided with a form of medication, which must be taken as instructed without missing any doses. Always remember to take your medication and follow the advice given by your general physician. Other ways that you can help to keep your BP down can be:
  • Limit salt intake
  • Lose weight
  • Reduce stress levels
  • Change your diet to include more fresh fruit and vegetables
  • Reduce alcohol intake
  • Quit smoking


user profile image
04-10-2017 06:04 AM

My father had malignant hypertension, it is a very serious problem. We rushed to the hospital very immediately. We had the treatment done and the execution of this treatment is good.

user profile image
15-02-2017 02:08 PM

I was suffering from hypertension for a very long time. I had my treatment done with a general physician. Results are upto the mark.

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