Neurological disorders refer to healthcare problems that arise due to any malfunctioning in the nervous system. The human nervous system is a complicated network that comprises of the brain and spinal column and includes millions of neurons that are required to work in a regulated manner. The slightest of troubles in this intricate network can lead to neurological disorders that can arise due to various reasons.
For instance, problems due to structural damage are usually seen when an individual suffers a serious accident and there is injury to the spinal cord or the brain. This gives rise to the most serious and life-threatening form of all Neurological Disorders-a Stroke. During a stroke, the patient is likely to lose his consciousness and the supply of blood to the brain and heart is impaired. Most people who suffer a stroke don't survive unless they are provided immediate, emergency medical care.
The more common type of disorders in this niche arises from dysfunction in the manner in which electrical impulses are relayed by the neurons. It should be noted that the human nervous system depends heavily upon the proper conduction of small electrical impulses across the neurons. This electrical network ensures that all bodily movements are in harmony and the individual has absolute control over voluntary body movements. The most common example in this category is Epilepsy. An epileptic patient is essentially an individual who has the tendency to suffer repeatedly from seizures. Each seizure in turn is a short phase of the pulses being conducted or relayed in a wrongful or abrupt manner.
The third and the least diagnosed of all nervous system disorders are those arising from impaired synthesis or transmission of chemicals in the nervous system. Please note that the brain uses a particular set of chemicals that are called neurotransmitters. These are chemicals that are central to the synchronization between the central, autonomic and peripheral systems. One of the most common examples of such problems is depression or a chronic feeling of malaise. This arises when one of the most vital mood-elevation neurotransmitters, called Dopamine, is not produced in sufficient quantities or its uptake is hindered or it is processed too soon, pushing the sufferer into a state of sustained sadness or depression.
There is little data to suggest that such problems have a race, region or gender-based preference but some of the conditions are more likely to surface in a certain set of people. For example, many such disorders are likely to be found among children. The best example of this is aphasia that refers to difficulty in saying or pronouncing common words. However, such issues can be overcome using dedicated counselling and seeking the help of speech therapists or language professionals.
Some more trends have been noticed in this niche. For instance, research suggests that morbidity due to such dysfunctions is rare but almost unavoidable in many cases. If the above examples are continued upon, a Stroke often gives little time to revive the patient whereas fatalities arising from depression or epilepsy can be controlled via timely medical and psychological intervention. Some neurological problems arise due to substance abuse, such as the sustained use of drugs or if an individual is chronically exposed to toxins. This is referred to as a case of 'accidental neurological disorder' that is rather rare and tends to have a regional existence only.
There are some secondary causes also like diseases of the brain or spinal cord that can induce chemical and electrical disturbances in the neural-pathways. Chronic and degenerative diseases are likely to be the cause here rather than short-term infections or seasonal diseases and allergies.